Tag: IGP

BGP Path Attributes: The BGP Path Selection Process

BGP Path Attributes

BGP has many attributes in choosing the best path. It is like an ice cream. It has many flavors. I bought Gianduia flavor from Gelato Messina while I was preparing this topic. I think I need loads of sugar to feed my brain as this BGP topic is robust and every attribute can be well-explained if we are going to lab it.

BGP’s attributes are mainly for path manipulation and these can influence either outbound or inbound traffic. It has a systematic process that it uses to choose the best path in the network.

BGP Path Selection Algorithm

The first thing that BGP checks is whether the WEIGHT is configured or not. WEIGHT is Cisco Proprietary so it is obvious that it prioritizes Cisco devices which has BGP WEIGHT configured. In short, if you are using Cisco devices, WEIGHT is the first thing it checks before it goes on with the series of standard BGP attributes. Keep in mind that WEIGHT is local to the router and doesn’t pass to other routers. The higher the value is more preferred. (more…)

The Internet Protocol: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Overview

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an exterior gateway protocol used on the internet and ISPs to exchange routing and reachability information. BGP is a layer 4 path vector routing protocol that uses port 179. It is the only EGP that is still in use today. The current BGP version is BGPv4 which was published as RFC 4271 in 2006.

Unlike other IGPs (OSPF, EIGRP, or RIP), BGP has many metrics or attributes in choosing the best path in the network. These attributes are for path manipulation. We will check it one by one as those attributes influence either inbound or outbound traffic.

EIGRP: Successor, Feasible Successor, and Reported Distance

EIGRP Successor and Feasible Successor

EIGRP really hates the querying process so it always preferred to have a backup route in case the link to a destination is unreachable. And, that backup route is the feasible successor. A feasible successor is a backup path used in the event the successor route disappears. It can be seen in the EIGRP topology table and because of this, the router doesn’t need to recalculate the metric. It automatically chooses the feasible successor when successor route fails.

Now that you know the feasible successor, automatically you know what the successor is. The successor is the best route to the destination. Unlike feasible successor that can only be seen in the topology table, it is seen in the routing table. Of course, the routing table has the best routes.

So what is reported distance? Is it the same with advertised distance? Actually, they are just the same. Reported distance / advertised distance is the cost from the next hop router to the destination.

The EIGRP No Auto-Summary Command | EIGRP Summarization Lab

The “no auto-summary” command is one of the most important commands that you shouldn’t neglect in configuring EIGRP. Honestly, during my first exam relating EIGRP in the Cisco Networking Academy, I just put this command to all routers under the EIGRP process. Well, it works! Without delving into the importance, I got a passing score. Yeah!

But just putting the command without the “ifs”, it made me realize that there is something I need to understand about this.

The “no auto-summary” command is configured under the EIGRP process. It prevents auto-summarization of networks. Without enabling this command, the routes from its interfaces will be advertised as classful A, B or C networks to its neighbors.


IGP: Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) Overview

Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP) is a Cisco proprietary protocol. It uses It is a hybrid protocol because it has features of the Link State and Distance Vector routing protocols. Confused? If you’re new with IGP, it is natural. You are not alone. There are millions to billions of people around the world who doesn’t know what the heck is EIGRP.

EIGRP is Cisco’s baby. It works on all Cisco devices. It is an advanced distance vector routing protocol that has some link state features. Like RIP, it has the hop count feature. Routes that reached the maximum hop cunt will be tagged as unreachable. Although it is not used as its metric, it limits the EIGRP AS when routing to a remote network. The default hop count is 100 and the value can vary between 1 – 255. And, like OSPF it does not send the whole routing table when there is a routing change. (more…)

Difference Between Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)?

When I first heard about Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP), I was just like, “what on bits and bytes are these?” If you are new to networks and you suddenly heard these on your first day, you might ignore the meaning and also the importance. However, you don’t have to memorize the meaning because you will know it by heart as days go by. (more…)